- Identification/formulation of research
- problem - anything that requires solution thru scientific investigation.
- Sources of problem :
§ C – concepts (Ca,
§ L – literature, essays, books, journals
§ I – Issues
§ E – experience
§ N – Nursing problems
§ T – theories
- Characteristics of a research problem
§ G – general applicability and use
§ Re – Researchable
§ F – Feasible and measurable
§ F – actors of a feasible research :
· time, money, experience of the researcher, instruments, population
§ I – importance to nursing profession
§ N – novelty/originality
· Plagiarism/illegal replication – unauthorized use of another’s literary work without any consent or permission
§ S – significance to nursing
- 2 types of research according to use
§ basic/pure research
· only the research benefits the research
· It is only for your personal necessity
· Answers your own question
§ Applied research
· problem solving
· Solving the problems of the patient.
- Variable – subject to change
- Kinds of variable
· Independent variable
o use this to stimulate a target population
· Dependent variable/Effectual variable
o results of the effects of the study
· Intervening Variable
o Comes between dependent and independent
o Example: orghanism variable, internal factor, sex, gender, color
· Extraneous Variable
o External infuences that can be changed
o Example: citizenship, educational status
· Dichotomous Variable
o 2 choices/ 2 results
o Example: Male/ Female
· Polychotomous Variable
o Multiple choices
o Example: Preferred foods – Chinese, Japanese, American. . . .
“A comparative Study in the Income of Filipino Nurses Employed in P.G.H. and N.Y.G.H.”
Independent variable : PGH and NYGH (place of work)
Target population : Filipino nurses
Dependent variable : income
1. Identify the Problem
2. Purpose – objective using SMART (Systematic, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time Bounded)
3. Define Terms
a. Conceptual Definition – dictionary definition
b. Operational Definition – defined in accordance on how the researcher used the word
4. Revision of Terms
· Review of related literature
o Purposes :
§ to have an update regarding your topic
§ to have a basis of theoretical and conceptual framework
o Main sources of literatures
· Can be sold
· Books – general use
· Research works only
· Future research purpose only
· Formulation of conceptual and theoretical framework
- Theory – relationship between concepts
- Conceptual framework
- diagrammatic and structural presentation of the problem hypothesis
- actual structural presentation of your conceptual framework
- Formulating hypothesis
- 5 types of hypothesis
§ Null/statistical hypothesis
· shows no relationship or difference between an independent variable and dependent variable.
· ID = DV
· Eg. “There is no difference regarding professional opportunities of Filipino Nurses working in the
§ Simple/Operational hypothesis/Alternative hypothesis
· this shows relationship between a single independent variable from single dependent variable.
· Eg. “Filipinos Nurses working in
§ Complex hypothesis
· this shows a relationship between two or more independent variable from two or more dependent variable.
· Eg. “Filipino nurses who worked for 5yrs and passed the CGFNS, TORFL, TSE, NCLEX has greater opportunities in NY as compared to those in
§ Directional hypothesis
· specifies the direction of the relationship between variables
· Eg. “Filipino Nurses working in the
· only predicts the relationship, but has no specific direction between variables.
· Eg. “There is a big difference between a Filipino Nurses working in
- Selecting research design
o Systematic controlled plan for finding the answer to a problem
o Roadmap, blueprint of the study
o Should have a proper resign design
o If improper research design, there will be improper collection of data
- Purpose : key or tool for proper collection of data
- According to Application
- Basic/ Pure
- For personal knowledge, curiosity
- Based on problem solving approach
- According to Methods
- performing active manipulation, observe and record the result.
- Types of Experimental Reseach
· divide grp into 2.
· Group a – control/comparison grp – will use the same soap everyday
· Group b – experimental grp – those who will use the sample soap
· using sample by chance.
· Choose randomly to avoid redundancy of result
· Performing intervention
· comparison of the effects
· false experiment.
· No control sample.
o No manipulation is done. Only observation, describe and record down the result.
o Types of non-experimental research design base on time element
§ Retrospective (Ex Post Facto)
· Getting actual experience
· Studies a group of people after its occurrence, experience or facts.
· Experience of people in the past
· Observe, describe & record.
· Study of current events.
· Study of research about future occurrence or future events.
· Past that is written, documented, published and recorded
· Primary Data
o 1st hand information
o person himself
· Secondary Data
o 2nd Hand Information
· About the past using records, journals, books.
· Study of the dead people thru his written materials, facts
o according to data
· data base on numerical interpretation, datas that are measurable, using your senses, data that are observable.
· subjective data, feelings, perception, beliefs, culture, attitude
o Survey Research Design
· Face to face
· Large – not good result
· Mailed survey
· Face to face
· Telephone survey
o According to Time Orientation
§ Cross Sectional
· Applicable to 2 or more identical group
· Short term
· For comparison
· 1 group only
· with initial and follow up survey
· long term study
· for developmental study
- Selecting your population and samples
- part of population, data is collected.
- The recipient of the experimental treatment in experimental design or the individuals to be observed in a non-experimental design
- Types of sampling
- Probability - equal presentation/ chances in the population.
- Simple random technique
- Used a single/identical group.
- Fish bowl technique
- Stratified random sampling
- You will first going to create a sub population from the whole population before doing randomization.
- One population, you divide it.
- Cluster random sampling
- You will first create a sub area in a population before doing the randomization. In one population, you make it smaller
- Systematic random sampling
- choosing a sample every nth name in the population.
- Multiple of 100 names
- Sampling frame – list of names appearing as your population
- Non-probability sampling – you are not choosing by chance.
- Accidental/ convenience sampling
- Base on the accessibility/availability of your sample.
- Kung sino pinakamalapit syo, yun ang kukunin mo.
- Purposive/judgmental sampling
- base on the common knowledge or popular knowledge.
- Snow-ball sampling
- get sampling base on last referral
- Quota Sampling
- Setting criteria and getting samples fitting the criteria
- Conducting pilot studies
- Collecting data
- types :
- questionnaires – use of pen and paper method
- dichotomous – divided into two. Eg. true orfalse. Yes or no
- rating scale – poor 1, good 2, better 3, best 4
- multiple choice
- Interview – use of oral method of collection of data. Use of active listening
- Structured – with checklist, formal talk, list of question
- Unstructured – informal talk, no pattern, anything goes
- records – pre existing data
- observation – use of ocular method using your senses
- participant observation
- non-participant observation
- Problems :
’s effects Hawthorne
- The data you get from your sample is not accurate.
- The sample has a problem
- Solution : double blind research – they should not be conscious that they are being studied
- Halo effect
- The researcher has a problem.
- He is manipulating the data collection.
- It is affected by special feelings/treatment between the researcher and the sample.
- Analysis of Data
- part of research when the researcher is forming a body of knowledge out of data collected for the purpose of affirming or denying your hypothesis
- Nominal method
- get data by means of categories.
- eg. male, female, income
- Ordinal method – base on rank eg. mild, moderate, severe
- base on the distance between 2 numerical values
- eg. BP – 150/100 – 120/80, wt, circumference, ht
- ratio – 3:10 children are malnourish
- Interpretation of Data
- 2 Methods
- quantitative method – base on numerical or graphical standards
- qualitative method – use of narrative words
- Communicating your conclusion
- Explaining the results of your work to the public
- Conclusion – final answer to your research
- Recommendation – suggestion to others
- Dissemination of Information
- Methods :
- thesis/book – written form
- symposia/symposium – oral presentation
- publish – a lot will be able to read your research