Saturday, September 27, 2008

Steps in Nursing Research Process

7:39 PM By Admin 5 comments

  • Identification/formulation of research

    • problem - anything that requires solution thru scientific investigation.

    • Sources of problem :

§ C – concepts (Ca, PTB, MI)

§ L – literature, essays, books, journals

§ I – Issues

§ E – experience

§ N – Nursing problems

§ T – theories

    • Characteristics of a research problem

§ G – general applicability and use

§ Re – Researchable

§ F – Feasible and measurable

§ F – actors of a feasible research :

· time, money, experience of the researcher, instruments, population

§ I – importance to nursing profession

§ N – novelty/originality

· Plagiarism/illegal replication – unauthorized use of another’s literary work without any consent or permission

§ S – significance to nursing

    • 2 types of research according to use

§ basic/pure research

· only the research benefits the research

· It is only for your personal necessity

· Answers your own question

§ Applied research

· problem solving

· Solving the problems of the patient.

    • Variable – subject to change

      • Kinds of variable

· Independent variable

o use this to stimulate a target population

· Dependent variable/Effectual variable

o results of the effects of the study

· Intervening Variable

o Comes between dependent and independent

o Example: orghanism variable, internal factor, sex, gender, color

· Extraneous Variable

o External infuences that can be changed

o Example: citizenship, educational status

· Dichotomous Variable

o 2 choices/ 2 results

o Example: Male/ Female

· Polychotomous Variable

o Multiple choices

o Example: Preferred foods – Chinese, Japanese, American. . . .


“A comparative Study in the Income of Filipino Nurses Employed in P.G.H. and N.Y.G.H.”

Independent variable : PGH and NYGH (place of work)

Target population : Filipino nurses

Dependent variable : income


1. Identify the Problem

2. Purpose – objective using SMART (Systematic, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time Bounded)

3. Define Terms

a. Conceptual Definition – dictionary definition

b. Operational Definition – defined in accordance on how the researcher used the word

4. Revision of Terms

· Review of related literature

o Purposes :

§ to have an update regarding your topic

§ to have a basis of theoretical and conceptual framework

o Main sources of literatures

§ Conceptual

· Formulated

· Authors

· Can be sold

· Books – general use

§ Research

· Researcher

· Research works only

· Future research purpose only

· Formulation of conceptual and theoretical framework

    • Theory – relationship between concepts

    • Conceptual framework

      • diagrammatic and structural presentation of the problem hypothesis

    • Paradigm

      • actual structural presentation of your conceptual framework

  • Formulating hypothesis

    • 5 types of hypothesis

§ Null/statistical hypothesis

· shows no relationship or difference between an independent variable and dependent variable.

· ID = DV

· Eg. “There is no difference regarding professional opportunities of Filipino Nurses working in the Philippines from those working in USA.”

§ Simple/Operational hypothesis/Alternative hypothesis

· this shows relationship between a single independent variable from single dependent variable.

· Eg. “Filipinos Nurses working in USA has more professional opportunities than those working in the Philippines.

§ Complex hypothesis

· this shows a relationship between two or more independent variable from two or more dependent variable.

· Eg. “Filipino nurses who worked for 5yrs and passed the CGFNS, TORFL, TSE, NCLEX has greater opportunities in NY as compared to those in Manila

§ Directional hypothesis

· specifies the direction of the relationship between variables

· Eg. “Filipino Nurses working in the USA has more professional opportunities than those working in the Phils.”

§ Non-directional

· only predicts the relationship, but has no specific direction between variables.

· Eg. “There is a big difference between a Filipino Nurses working in USA than those working in the Phils.”

  • Selecting research design

o Systematic controlled plan for finding the answer to a problem

o Roadmap, blueprint of the study

o Should have a proper resign design

o If improper research design, there will be improper collection of data

    • Purpose : key or tool for proper collection of data

    • Types

      • According to Application

        • Basic/ Pure

          • For personal knowledge, curiosity

        • Applied

          • Based on problem solving approach

      • According to Methods

        • Experimental

          • performing active manipulation, observe and record the result.

          • Types of Experimental Reseach

§ control

· divide grp into 2.

· Group a – control/comparison grp – will use the same soap everyday

· Group b – experimental grp – those who will use the sample soap

§ randomization

· using sample by chance.

· Choose randomly to avoid redundancy of result

§ Manipulation

· Performing intervention

§ Validation

· comparison of the effects

§ Quasi-experimental

· false experiment.

· No control sample.

        • Non-experimental

o No manipulation is done. Only observation, describe and record down the result.

o Types of non-experimental research design base on time element

§ Retrospective (Ex Post Facto)

· Getting actual experience

· Studies a group of people after its occurrence, experience or facts.

· Experience of people in the past

§ Descriptive

· Observe, describe & record.

· Study of current events.

§ Prospective

· Study of research about future occurrence or future events.

§ Historical

· Past that is written, documented, published and recorded

· Primary Data

o Observe

o 1st hand information

o person himself

· Secondary Data

o 2nd Hand Information

· About the past using records, journals, books.

· Study of the dead people thru his written materials, facts

o according to data

§ quantitative

· data base on numerical interpretation, datas that are measurable, using your senses, data that are observable.

§ qualitative

· subjective data, feelings, perception, beliefs, culture, attitude

o Survey Research Design

§ Group

· Small

· Face to face

· Large – not good result

§ Methods

· Mailed survey

· Face to face

· Telephone survey

o According to Time Orientation

§ Cross Sectional

· Applicable to 2 or more identical group

· Short term

· For comparison

§ Longitudinal

· 1 group only

· with initial and follow up survey

· long term study

· for developmental study

  • Selecting your population and samples

    • sample

      • part of population, data is collected.

      • The recipient of the experimental treatment in experimental design or the individuals to be observed in a non-experimental design

    • Types of sampling

      • Probability - equal presentation/ chances in the population.

        • Simple random technique

          • Used a single/identical group.

          • Fish bowl technique

        • Stratified random sampling

          • You will first going to create a sub population from the whole population before doing randomization.

          • One population, you divide it.

        • Cluster random sampling

          • You will first create a sub area in a population before doing the randomization. In one population, you make it smaller

        • Systematic random sampling

          • choosing a sample every nth name in the population.

          • Multiple of 100 names

          • Sampling frame – list of names appearing as your population

      • Non-probability sampling – you are not choosing by chance.

        • Accidental/ convenience sampling

          • Base on the accessibility/availability of your sample.

          • Kung sino pinakamalapit syo, yun ang kukunin mo.

        • Purposive/judgmental sampling

          • base on the common knowledge or popular knowledge.

        • Snow-ball sampling

          • get sampling base on last referral

        • Quota Sampling

          • Setting criteria and getting samples fitting the criteria

  • Conducting pilot studies

  • Collecting data

    • types :

      • questionnaires – use of pen and paper method

        • dichotomous – divided into two. Eg. true orfalse. Yes or no

        • rating scale – poor 1, good 2, better 3, best 4

        • multiple choice

      • Interview – use of oral method of collection of data. Use of active listening

        • Structured – with checklist, formal talk, list of question

        • Unstructured – informal talk, no pattern, anything goes

      • records – pre existing data

      • observation – use of ocular method using your senses

        • participant observation

        • non-participant observation

        • Problems :

          • Hawthorne’s effects

            • The data you get from your sample is not accurate.

            • The sample has a problem

            • Solution : double blind research – they should not be conscious that they are being studied

          • Halo effect

            • The researcher has a problem.

            • He is manipulating the data collection.

            • It is affected by special feelings/treatment between the researcher and the sample.

  • Analysis of Data

    • part of research when the researcher is forming a body of knowledge out of data collected for the purpose of affirming or denying your hypothesis

    • Methods

      • Nominal method

        • get data by means of categories.

        • eg. male, female, income

      • Ordinal method – base on rank eg. mild, moderate, severe

      • Interval

        • base on the distance between 2 numerical values

        • eg. BP – 150/100 – 120/80, wt, circumference, ht

      • ratio – 3:10 children are malnourish

  • Interpretation of Data

    • 2 Methods

      • quantitative method – base on numerical or graphical standards

      • qualitative method – use of narrative words

  • Communicating your conclusion

    • Explaining the results of your work to the public

    • Conclusion – final answer to your research

    • Recommendation – suggestion to others

    • Dissemination of Information

      • Methods :

        • thesis/book – written form

        • symposia/symposium – oral presentation

        • publish – a lot will be able to read your research


Anonymous said...

very simple way of expressing the steps in nursing research and at the same time much useful also thank you

leo cesar talens said...

I find this so elementary that everyone into nursing research would find it helpful

Anonymous said...

thank you for your work, been a great help :)

Sandeep said...

Thank You very Much. It is helpfull.

Rita said...

Thanks for simplifying this process. Keep it up

Let us build this blog together!

The Health Department
is blog dedicated to my colleagues especially those who are starters in nursing. Most of the files posted here are not mine but was given to me for this blog to publish. The articles here are not all mine and some are from my friends from college who still continues to help me build this blog. By sending me your nursing files, you can help our colleagues in searching for better nursing files. Don't worry guys, I'll be giving you proper credit to the files you'll share to us if you want. Email us at aolionheart@yahoo.com I believe that we, as nurses/bloggers, can create a great community. I mean there are so many people living and blogging all around the world why should we not try and accomplish something together?